Dr. Knowledge, What do you think of the bamboo skateboards?
I wish I could test a few of them. I have been in discussion with them for a few years now about their getting involved in the testing. In fact, we had it all planned for them to get involved in the 2004 and 2005 testing but they lost interest. Anyway, I can only report that I too would like to test out the bamboo decks. I don't even know anyone who has tried one. If I had a larger testing budget I could order a few to test. That is my problem, I have to buy them in lots of 5-10 for my testing. I receive no outside funding for my testing. So, I guess you can call me Broke Skateboard Tester. HAHAHA.
Dr. Knowledge, My son is a big kid, I'm trying to be
environmentally conscious and without alot of money, Which board should
I buy him?
I would suggest buying the one of the two decks below if your wanting to try something new, other than maple for someone who is breaking boards and your wallet. Here are two 100% composite deck options.
First, a high end expert class deck for a little over a hundred dollars.
Revdeck 150 lbs and above. http://www.revdeck.com/
Great Product! Best all composite deck I have seen. They use a deck ranking system that separates their decks by skill level expectations. They have achieved their goal. They have a quality product that can easily meet user satisfaction. They were the best in slide wear and abrasion resistance testing. Best style/design I have seen in a deck. Decks could easily last 2-1 over conventional decks. Decks were also lighter than the average decks tested. Manufactured with 100% composite materials.
Second, fiberblass/plastic composite decks sell new for $27.00 on e-bay. My brother is big compared to the average skater. He can easily snap a average wood deck within a few days of normal use. He has been skating one of these fiberglass decks for 2 years now. He likes it. I like it too. Decks are more expensive than ever, not to mention griptape.
Dr. Knowledge, how do I break my bearings in?
SKATE, SKATE, SKATE. The ABEC bearings will be a little faster to begin with, but
due to the close tolerances of the bearings, they slow down, or wear in after a few days or
weeks of skating. To be honest, unless you have tons of cash, don't
waste your time riding only new sets of bearings on your deck, unless your into downhill or slalom. Just
keep an eye on them from time, and if a bearing separates or wears out, replace it. Or replace the
set, depending on how the other bearings are doing. Just my opinion.
Dr. Knowledge, should I use WD-40 to oil my bearings?
Based on the lubricant test we did with 10W-30
motor oil, WD-40, graphite, and several other chemicals, the best lubricant brand was the cheapest
oil-based spray available from the local Wal Mart. Who say's cheaper isn't better?
Dr. Knowledge, what is the best overall deck?
Good question, but hard to answer. After testing hundreds of decks, I am a little
apprehensive to pick just one. There are some great decks on the market today, and no one
deck will fit everyone's needs. Some people need a stiffer deck, based on skill
level, weight, and type of skating they choose to do. Some people need a more flexible deck
for the same reasons. Many decks do well in one or more areas. During my testing, I sought out
the decks that are not too stiff or too flexible, more middle of the road types. Decks manufactured
by CSF and Performance SK8 excelled in many areas. Dykema, Jart, Penn's Wood, Baker, Powell,
Watson Laminates, and Acme would be good choices. Another recommendation is to try someone else's
skateboard when you and your friends are skating, or just try other brands out for yourself. Good luck!
Dr. Knowledge, why aren't composite decks cheaper?
Resin prices are rising. Why? Oil prices are higher. The polyester
resin used by many skateboard, snowboard, and surfboard manufacturers has increased
over a third this year. The resin used is a key part of the manufacturing process,
causing many manufacturers to look for cheaper alternatives. With the increased global awareness,
due to the excessive deforestation by the skateboard industry, some skaters turn to
decks manufactured from composite materials. Another cause for higher resin prices is supply
and demand. Simply put, these materials will go to the highest bidder. It makes it hard for the small
guy to compete, when they can't buy in bulk. This trend may or may not continue, due to the difference
in price that will be seen on the shelf.
Dr. Knowledge, how is the deck testing going?
These decks are ranked on a scale of 1-10. Again, I want to thank
companies that contributed decks for this testing. Without them, this ranking
would not be
Best Tested: 9 stars: Alien Workshop
The Alien Workshop decks excelled, which cost $49.99 and are made in USA by
California Skate Factory. These decks have all the properties we have come to
expect from a
skateboard. They did great on the fatigue test, as well as the torsion
and flexural test. They
meet or exceed the standard deviation established by the group.
The Hardened Egg
Shell UV Printing is baked into the deck, greatly increasing deck life by
reducing damage to the
wood. It is super strong. All California Skate Factory Products are
100% Guaranteed against
manufacturer defects. Based on this testing, they would be a great purchase.
8 stars: Jart Skateboards
Jart Skateboards cost $50 for graphic decks and $40 for blanks. They are
Spain. These skateboard decks are one of the big surprises to this
cutting edge fabrication process used in production, greatly contributes to
their appeal. They
were the most uniform of all decks tested. Jart decks were the thin
light. They did very good on the fatigue, torsion, and flexural testing.
Their quality control
system is unmatched in the industry. The only drawback
is that they are
slightly more flexible than the average deck. I was very
impressed with the
graphics, too. They would be a great purchase if you can
find them in the USA.
8 stars: Penn's Wood Mfg.
Penn's Wood decks cost $20.99 and are made in USA. They really moved up this year in my
book. They said
last year they would do better in the
testing, and they did!!!
These decks meet the standard deviation in many areas, except moisture
Congratulations on a job well done. Based on price, these may be
some of the best
cost vs. performance decks on the market today.
8 stars: Baker Skateboards
Baker Skateboards cost $45.99 and are made in Mexico. They are manufactured by Bareback. They
why they make some of the most popular decks on the market today.
These decks meet
the standard deviation in many areas of testing. Plus they are thin and light
and their graphics appeal to skaters. Based on this testing, Baker
continue to be a great buy.
7 stars: ACME Skateboards
ACME Skateboards are made in USA. They tested well in several areas. The
varied somewhat from the average, but with that said, they
are some really good
decks. They did well on the abrasion resistance test, too. They would also be a
7 stars: Powell Mini Logo
Powell Mini Logo decks are made by Skate One Corp. This SST Coated deck cost $29.99 and is made in
Santa Barbara, CA.
These decks did very well this year. The SST coating that Powell is using
is super slick,
resulting in greater wear resistance and longer deck life. The Mini Logo
decks did better on the
slide test than any other decks tested. These decks did have
more damage on the
abrasion resistance test than any of the other decks. The deck
stiffness varied from
the average,too. Based on cost vs. performance, these
decks continue to
be a good buy.
1 star: Kryptonics
Kryptonics complete skateboards cost $39.99 and can be found in sporting good stores. They are made in China.
One of the Kryptonics decks broke during the fatigue test, and the remaining
decks did not fair
very well on the flexural and
torsion tests. These decks
had a really low moisture content, resulting in them being too stiff and too brittle.
Plus, they had a shallow
concave and are a little heavy compared to the average deck.
Dr. Knowledge, I could not find anything on the web concerning this new truck/deck mounting system.
Anything to help me understand the concept?
BTW I could not find any Dykema web site. Strange.
Thanks for your support!
Dykema does not yet have a website available. It is in planning though. They are developing some cutting edge products at Rob Dykema Mfg. Co. Examples include:(the deck mounting system), (Dimple Rock decks and the Tip and Tail Slider decks). The basic concept is that the trucks mount to the deck. The improvement over traditional decks mounting systems is the fact that there are no holes thru the decks. I have skated on one of these concept decks and I have to admit the pop of this decks is significant. I for one can see a market for this deck mounting system. Mounting hardware, tool and Deck are the priced compariable to a normal deck, possibly a $1.00 more.
This concept has been patented and the number is #USOO6214142B1. This board has lots of advantages:(A)no through holes (B)no screws hanging down for truck hang up and the easy ability of removing you standard truck. They are calling that board "Interlock".
Dr. Knowledge, how do you make the perfect ollie?
Practice, practice, practice. It's all about timing. You need a good board you are comfortable with. It is a matter of personal preference, some like a more flexible deck, some like a deck with a deeper concave. With a friends help or using a video camera try to ollie over different items, decks, bricks, the curb, and see where the highest point of the ollie is. If it is before your target height speed up and if it is after your target height slow down you arrival speed a little. I hear people say they ollie 1ft - 3 1/2 ft. Some measure the height by the number of stacked boards they can jump. These heights also vary from 1 board to 5. I even hear a 6 or 8 board jump has been made but these heights seem to be while coming down a hill or some other abnormal condition other than flat ground. I am sure there are some guys out there doing extreme heights but they don't get a lot of opportunity to show off their talents in a contest setting. With skateboarding coming to the Olympics, I am sure we will see these and many more skateboarding records broken in the near future.
Dr. Knowledge, how far was the biggest ollie made?
I am sure someone will correct me and I would be glad to change these if someone can provide further information regarding this answer. But here is the newest info. I have on this record and a few more of interest.
Longest Ollie, 16' 5" by Kris Markovich, Oct. 30th 2003 Los Angeles California
Highest Ollie, 44 1/2" by Reese Danny Wainwright, At the Reese Forbes highest ollie contest.
Highest Air, 65 ft, Danny Way, April 16th 2002 Southern California.
Dr. Knowledge, why do people skateboard?
Well, after thinking on this a few days I have to admit I can't answer that for everyone, only myself.
I skateboard because I like it. Correction I love it. I get my daily exercise. I get to socialize with my friends. It is also a avenue to meet new friends. Skateboarding has been very, very good to me. HAHA/ But, seriously it is a user friendly, social activity that brings us all together to learn from and encourage on another in a common goal.
Not to WIN or be #1, but to have fun and skate at your own level and ability. Go to your local skatepark, if your lucky enough to have one and watch the kids and adults encouraging each other and having a good time. I for one have never seen a conflict of fight among skaters. If you don't skateboard you might not understand.
Dr. Knowledge, for some reason god hasn't blessed me with knowledge or any skills for skateboarding so I was wondering what board got the best stats and trucks and other hardware, etc.... Thanks fo yo time.
Last year, the Performance sk8 decks did very well last year. Along with several others Dykema, Baker, LibTech,
California Skate Factory, and the Powell decks. All these decks would be a good purchase. This year we tested most of these decks and a few more from around the world. Based on performance, a rule of thumb I tend to see prove true is that the decks that have child/cartoon based characters are usually marketed toward young kids and more advanced skaters should steer clear of them because they tend to be lacking the performance we have come to expect from a quality skateboard. You get what you pay for, proves true in skateboards. The 2004 testing should be posted soon and if you get a chance view the data and see where your decks ranks this year.
Dr. Knowledge, does plastic or fiberglass increase deck performance?
Some are adding it to the top or bottom or both like Libtech. Some are putting a layer between the wood.
It make the decks stiffer. And lighter. Kinda like Santa Cruz and their powerlites. They test different. The
fibers don't respond like wood does. Once the fibers are bent they don't bend back like a good wood decks does.
It is almost like a real dry deck. It is harder to bend but once it does it response (pop) is gone. My brother
has skated one of the polypropolyene decks from Notanotherskateboardzine for almost a year now. He likes it. It flexs a little more and he is big so it is a perfect choice for him. And not to mention we live in the south. Humid and hot or cold and wet, not much in between. The fiberglass decks have a certian number of customers that are going to buy them because they think it will increase decks life. It makes them last longer for sure and if you are using inferior wood it would be a good use of the materials. I will make you a bet. The companies that are selling decks from China will start using fiberglass and carbon fiber to stiffen up thier decks. I think I got some in this round of testing. Once this happens, the US companies will really be hurting. They will take over that last corner of the market.
If the dollar stays low they might be able to compete against them for a while. I bet it is having an effect already. The dollar is almost half of the Euro right now.
Dr. Knowledge, which bearings are better, abec 3 or abec 7?
Some of the first bearings used for skateboards were adapted from vacuum cleaner applications. Most often bearings are sold in sets of 8, 2 per wheel. One bearing goes on each side of the wheel in the bearing seat of the wheel. The bearings are sealed precision type bearings of standard size and width. Although they do not require lubrication they will and do fail. The seals tend to get water and trash into them and this further shortens bearing life. The seal is also only on the outside of the bearing. I lubricate my bearings to ensure the water and trash is displaced. The bearing rating system in use today is for machinery, thus not very effective for comparison involving skateboard bearings. The more precise bearings ABEC 7+ the shorter the life span, partly due to the abuse they are subject too. A bearing rated ABEC 7+, although faster, it may not last as long as a ABEC 3 bearing due to fact it is more susceptible to trash and wear problems due to closer tolerances.
I admit it is hard to resist the faster bearings, but after a few days of skating it's hard to tell them from a ABEC 3 bearing. There are some great medium rated bearings available ABEC 3 and ABEC 5 that fit most applications.
And the best advice is to try them out for your self. I also have see spacers to be placed inside the wheel between the bearings, suggested for the use in aiding in keeping bearings parallel, thus aiding in wheel performance. Although, I myself have never tried them, they sound like a good idea. So, if you have a need for speed, just remember you will probably have to replace them more often.
Dr. Knowledge, what are trucks?
Trucks for skateboarding started to come on the market in the early 1970's, just after
the improvements brought about by the use of urethane wheels.
Axle length is usually slightly shorter than deck width, about ¼". Higher trucks can also allow for larger size wheel use. Depending on wheel size and skating use, these should all be considered before purchasing trucks.
The trucks consist of a base plate (for mounting the truck to the deck) and an axle which pivots on 2 urethane bushings. These are the kingpin bushing and the pivot bushing. The stiffer the bushing is, the more stable the ride of the board. This axle system allows for independent suspension and steering of the board. This design was adapted for skateboards from roller skates. The steering of the board is achieved by leaning left or right to go left or right. The kingpin being tight or loose either allows for a tighter/harder turn or a loose/easier turn.
Choosing a good set of trucks is getting a little more difficult. Just as with skateboard decks, there are a number of manufacturers and many different brands sold under each different one. A unsatisfactory purchase may be repeated by going to another brand from the same manufacturer. Outsourcing and inferior manufacturing processes are to blame.
Dykema Mfg. has a new concept truck/deck mounting system that is sure to get a lot of good attention. Instead of bolting the trucks to the deck with the use of a bolt thru the deck itself, (this normally by design allows for a point of fatigue). This concept deck/truck mounting system uses low profile screws and bolts the truck to the decks into a securely mounted inserts in the deck, thus increasing deck life. Give them a big round of applause!
For the beginner skater it is best to buy basic sets of trucks that are recommended for your board. When you move up to advanced decks and have increased skills, you'll know more then about needs based on the types of skating you are doing. Color, weight, design, and style are all options to consider when purchasing trucks. The most durable trucks tend to be heavier.
Sorry, to get so basic but this is introduction is for the new guy.
Dr. Knowledge, when do I need to use riser pads?
Ever since risers have been on the market the average kid has wondered when getting that first skateboard, Why is this on my deck and do I need it? Well, I too have fallen victim to this problem. First of all, I use them. I guess it goes a little beyond my desire to not have the wheels rub the bottom of my deck, which in turn causes flat spots on the wheels (causing for a rougher ride and shorting wheel life) and marking up the deck. It is more to do with the truck itself being bolted to the bottom of my deck. The truck base can and does make a impression on the bottom of the deck when mounted without risers. So What!? Well, this impression is damaging the deck wood fibers and making the deck weaker, thus shortening deck life. The riser also acts like a shock absorber, same as the bushings on the trucks and the wheels. Energy is absorbed by this action and makes for a smoother ride. The kingpin from some trucks can also damage the deck. Most decks fatigue along the truck base. Either in front or behind the truck, depending on the tricks you do and how you ride most often. I call it the Fault Line. Risers generally range from 1/8"-1/2"
thick. Riser hardness also is a big subject topic with some skaters. Again, the type of skating you does depend on your performance needs. The harder the risers are better for tricks and the softer risers are for cruising. If your skateboard has small (50mm) wheels you can to go without them to Go Big. But it is a rougher ride.
Dr. Knowledge, how can I make my ollies higher?
This popular skateboarding trick was invented by Alan 'OLLIE" Gelfand. This involves making a vertical leap on flat land. This trick has lead to many of the more advanced tricks we see performed today. These include jumping up on a rail, curbs, high jump contests, and kick flips, ect. The skateboard appears to stay attached to the feet but the riders. Energy pushing down on the board and being directed back up toward the skater allows the deck to rise with the skater. The deck kind of acts like a car spring once flexed it tries to return to it's original shape, thus energy is directed back up towards the skater. Deck suspension also plays a key role in deck performance. Truck bushings, pivot points and wheel hardness all also contribute to the direction and amount of energy that can be used to achieve complicated tricks. The kingpin itself, depending on how tight or loose it is can also determine how the board responds. If it is tight it can aid in rebound, if it is loose energy is lost thru it to the ground. Harder wheels tend to direct energy back up toward the skater also and smaller wheels tend to be lighter and are a good choice for learning flip tricks and ollies. The lighter the better.
Dr. Knowledge, what kind of wheels are best for skateboarding?
Skateboard wheels have changed over the years. During the early years, steel wheels were the norm. They were tough and they rode rough. They were slick and offered very little traction or board control. By 1960 clay wheels started to show up, but like metal wheels before them they lacked the control and performance desired by skateboarders.
Then in the 1970's Frank Nasworthy adapted urethane wheels from rollerskates to a skateboard and the performance increase has greatly contributed to the popularity of skateboarding we see today.
Urethane wheels offer great traction while being abrasion resistant. Normally urethane is clear. Color additives tend to weaken the wheels, thus shorting their lifespan. As with a pneumatic tube tire a urethane wheel will flatten when weight of force is applied, but they
rebound/return to their shape quickly, allowing for a smooth ride. The key in selecting a
wheel which is right for you depends on the type of skating you do. Smaller wheels are usually for street skating and larger wheels are when skating parks, bowls and rough terrain. They use a durometer to determine wheel hardness. The average is 97a-99a, and the smaller the number the softer the wheel on the A-scale. If it is a wheel has a scale of B,C or D it will be a harder wheel as it goes up on the alphabet scale also. Larger
wheels are often softer by design and tend to give a smoother ride. Wheels have a harder core/center to allow the bearing seat to be hard enough to protect the bearing for deformation. In choosing a wheel first determine which kind of skating you will be doing.
Transition/vertical skating-99-100a hardness and a 55-65mm size.
Street/technical-95-100a hardness and a 50-55mm size.
General/All Terrain-95-100a hardness and a 52-60mm size.
Cruising- Are usually softer at 78-85a and larger at 64-75mm size.
The most common size available is 54mm and a 99a hardness. Harder wheels tend to last longer. A deck with harder wheels will be more responsive. Energy will be transferred back up towards the skater instead of down to the ground as with softer wheels. Wheels of 60mm and larger tend to need risers to prevent wheel bite (the wheel rubbing the board in turns), the bigger wheels tend to weigh more thus making the board heavier, and the lighter the better for tricks. The best bet is to ask your friends, try their boards and buy something common and skate. Change wheels then as needed then.
Dr. Knowledge, what kind of wheel lubricant should I buy for my bearings?
How many of you skaters are lubricating your bearings/trucks? I recently discussed it with several people and the response varied. So in order to get a feel for how much
It could and does affect a skateboards speed and performance. I tried several types of lubricants: motor oil, graphite, grease, wd-40 and oil based spray lubricants on wheel bearings and trucks. I didn't measure time of rotation with any advanced equipment.
We just applied different lubricants over time to several different skateboards, skated and the results are kind of surprising. The cheapest oil based lubricant from Wal-Mart excelled over the other lubricants tested. The test wasn't entirely about which lubricant to use, but about if it affected speed and by how much. It did, based on our test and if you have a need for speed, Lubricate as needed.
Dr. Knowledge, when considering conaves, how steep is too steep?
Have you noticed how steep some deck concaves have become? Some companies are even giving the deep concave designs fancy names to aid them in the marketing of these
decks. All agree some concave greatly improves deck performance. But there is a point where if it is too steep it can hinder a deck. A deck with a really steep concave is too stiff for the average rider to achieve any response from it. Then why are they so steep? Well, some heavier people need a stiffer deck. Some decks are put under extreme pressure during advance skating tricks. Some manufacturers offset using inferior materials by relying on deck design to compensate for this flaw and they understand this trade off. A deck with a steeper concave is a little harder to ride and some complain about not being able to keep their feet properly positioned on the deck. Some of these stiffer decks once they are stressed/flexed break due to the inferior materials fatiguing will fail. Another problem is the wood used in this manufacturing process is being pressed together at 25,000 to 30,000 psi to achieve these deep concaves. The high pressure damages wood fibers resulting is shorter deck life. Many manufactures are pressing 8-10+ decks in one press. The decks toward the center of the stack have problems. They tend to not have the same shape and performance as the decks toward the mold itself. The lamination process is greatly lacking in these decks toward the center also. They don't get pressure applied proportionally to allow for proper lamination (gluing), thus resulting in deck failures.
So, the real question is how steep is too steep? It is a matter of personal preference and if you get a deck
you like, then all the better.
If company sales of steep concaves falls off, they will slow production of these models. It is about business; of course people buy what is available too. If they are all steep and you get used to it you think that is the way it should be. A deck acts kind of like a car spring. Weight, force, energy is applied causing it to flex. If you are light, it will be a little harder to get any real response from a stiffer deck. If your skateboard is a little springy you may need a thicker deck or one with a steeper concave. Let's not forget the problem with inferior materials vs. deep concave. Short of buying one and trying it out or getting advice from friends it is a little hard to tell which decks is quality and which are not.
Dr. Knowledge, shouldn't decks be rated somehow, so skaters know what type to buy?
Just an opinion, but without a true deck rating system based on rider weight and skill level we are doomed to failure with the present trial and error system we are using now. Decks in general are advertises toward certain age groups. If is a cartoon character for kids, it is probably going to be a beginner/intermediate level deck. More advanced graphics and or adult type animation, logos, ect. are most often more expensive and perform better and usually are in the intermediate to advanced level. These usually have better more expensive deck coatings also, such as epoxy, fiberglass, SST, ect. The near future of skateboarding will see such a system. With the Olympic games coming to a skatepark near you, along with it will come a rating system. Until now skateboards have been toys.
But, they soon are going to be sports items. They will be held to the standards developed under state and federal regulations for sports items. Safety standards will be running out our noses. What does this mean for the companies? Skaters? Retailers? Companies have to know their customers will be more enlightened to just how good their decks really are, or are not. Only time will tell.
Dr. Knowledge, my deck is made in China. should I skate it or buy an American one?
This is the shock felt by a large percentage of skaters. Their favorite brands are moving overseas. They are in a real dilemma. What to do? Well, first check the tag in your shirt, pants, shoes, car, bike, and the list goes on. I will wait?.Well what did you find? Probably the same thing most of us do. Our society is increasingly dependent on goods manufactured overseas and I would guess will continue to receive a lot of unfavorable attention. If these decks manufactured overseas continue to be placed on the market at cheaper prices than the US manufacturing companies can compete at, who suffers?
New skaters are purchasing these barging decks as their first board. If they have a positive experience they may continue to buy boards as needed for years and years as needed. But if the first deck or two that they get fails quickly and they get a little unsatisfied by the experience, who suffers? I think a whole generation of kids are forced to make choices we never had to face. To get a real feel for what kids think, Ask One!
They are as diverse as adults on their answer, except more impressionable. Many factors
Effect these differences. If someone they admire and respect thinks it's ok to buy a made in China deck, they more than likely will agree. If they are associated, fans or friends of skaters that only ride American/Canadian they too will more than likely follow along.
What we need is a good old fashion Poll. Well, who would you poll? Skaters? How would you separate the age groups? Is race a factor? Does income play a role? Poll shop owners? Shop Managers? Shop Employees? Pro Riders? I bet the answers we get would
shock some. So, if you are a pollster and see a need and want to help the cause, start here.
I see the info being very valuable to companies betting the farm on the possible future of skateboarding.
Dr. Knowledge, will the skateboarding industry quit using wood and start using more composites?
As with any product manufactures in the US at this time skateboards are no exception to the rule. With the environmental effects of continuing to manufacturer decks from wood, and the environmentally unfriendly glues, paints, adhesives, epoxy's, resins , ect. used in the construction have been receiving attention for years. The future of skateboarding will
have composite decks to edge out the traditional wood deck market. New and exciting products are receiving increased attention, such as carbon fiber, fiberglass, aluminum,
composites, plastics and bamboo. Some of these processes use deck construction materials that are just as environmentally unsound as cutting trees to make skateboards.
Epoxy's and resins have large amounts of waste that require special handling and disposal not to mention the health problems associated with working with the chemicals.
But in trying to achieve the goal of building a better mouse trap, all avenues are being explored. With all the millions of other products being manufactured in the world why
Should people care about weather or not a deck is made from wood? Is it because it is a luxury item and not a necessity of life?
Is it because it is a good starting point for environmentalist to sound out a call for preservation of out natural forest?
With the cost of manufacturing and electricity used in construction, which is either achieved thru coal or nuclear sources and fuel for transportation in ships and trucks, not to mention the cost and materials of producing the transportation itself, the true environmental cost to society is no less important than with any other product. Environmental issues and restrictions are causing increased awareness in all of society. These restrictions contributed in some companies moving to developing
countries where laws are more flexible. With some companies using inferior woods and glues in their manufacturing process, I foresee increased alternative raw material usage.
Consumer demand and material availability will be the determining factor.
Check out this blast
from the past!